• P.B. Zamudio-Flores
  • L.A. Bello-Pérez
Keywords: composite films, mechanical properties, substitution degree


Acetylation of oat starch was carried at two different levels (low and medium), and characterized by proximate analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Acetylated starches underwent Maillard reaction with whey protein isolates, yielding glycoproteins with different degree of glycosylation (high, medium and low), which were characterized by the spectrophometric o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) method. Films were made with the glycoproteins, and their physicochemical properties and mechanical were evaluated. Morphologic and X-ray diffraction analysis suggest that acetylation reaction mainly occurred in the amorphous regions of the starch granule. Glycoproteins films did not show significant changes in the mechanical property of the fracture stress, except the film elaborated with the medium acetylation level and the high level of glycosylation, presenting greater fracture stress than the other films. The results of the mechanical tests and water vapor permeability of the films indicated that the glycoproteins could be suitable as coating materials to respiration control and senescence of fruit and vegetables.


AACC (2000). Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemist. American Association of Cereal Chemist, St. Paul, MN, EUA. 10 ed.

Afolabi, T.A., Olu-Owolabi, B.I., Adebowale, K.O., Lawal, O.S. y Akintayo, C.O. (2012). Functional and tableting properties of acetylated and oxidized finger millet (Eleusine coracana) starch. Starch/St¨arke 64, 326-337.

AOAC (2002). Offcial Methods of Analysis (18th ed.). Association of Offcial Analytical Chemist, Gaithersburg, MA, EUA.

ASTM D-882-95a. (1995). Standard test methods for tensile properties of thin plastic sheeting.

ASTM E-96-80. (1989). Standard methods of test for water vapor transmission of materials in sheet form.

Bello-Pérez, L.A., Contreras-Ramos, S.M., Jiménez- Aparicio, A. y Paredes-López, O. (2000). Acetylation and characterization of banana (Musa paradisiaca) starch. Acta Científica Venezolana 51, 143-149.

Bello-Pérez, L.A., Sánchez-Rivera, M.M., Núñez- Santiago, C., Rodríguez-Ambriz, S.L. y Román- Gutiérrez, A.D. (2010). Effect of the pearled in the isolation and the morphological, physicochemical and rheological characteristics of barley starch. Carbohydrate Polymers 81, 63-69.

Bergo, P., Sobral, P.J.A. y Prison, J.M. (2010). Effect of glycerol on physical properties of cassava starch films. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 34, 401?410.

Brindle, V.M. y Krochta, J.M. (2008). Physical properties of whey protein-hydroxypropylmethylcellulose blend edible films. Journal of Food Science 73, E446-E454.

Cao, X., Chang, P.R. y Huneault, M.A. (2008). Preparation and properties of plasticized starch modi?ed with poly(-caprolactone) based waterborne polyurethane. Carbohydrate Polymers 71, 119-125.

Choi, E., Kim, C. y Park, J.J. (1999). Structure-property relationship in PCL/starch blend compatibilized with starch-g-PCL copolymer. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics 37, 2430-2438.

Church, F.C., Swaisgood, H.E., Porter, D.H. y Catignani, G.L. (1983). Spectrophotometric assay using Ophthaldialdehyde for determination of proteolysis in milk and isolated milk proteins. Journal of Dairy Science 66, 1219-1227.

Coughlan, K., Shaw, N.B., Kerry, J.F. y Kerry, J.P. (2004). Combined effects of proteins and polysaccharides on physical properties of whey protein concentratebased edible films. Journal of Food Science 69, E271-E275.

Damodaran, S. y Agyare, K. (2013). Effect of microbial transglutaminase treatment on thermal stability and pH-solubility of heat-shocked whey protein isolate. Food Hydrocolloids 30, 12-18.

García, M.A., Pinotti, A., Martino, M.N. y Zaritzky, N.E. (2004). Characterization of composite hydrocolloid films. Carbohydrate Polymers 56, 339-345.

Guerra Della, D., Sánchez-Rivera, M.M., Zamudio- Flores, P.B., Méndez-Montealvo, G. y Bello-Pérez, L.A. (2009). Efecto del tipo de modificación en las características fisicoquímicas y reológicas del almidón de plátano. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 8, 197-203.

Hernández-Izquierdo, V.M. y Krochta, J.M. (2009). Thermal transitions of heat-sealing of glycerolplasticized whey protein films. Packaging Technology and Science 22, 255-260.

Hoover, R., Hughes, T., Chung, H.J. y Liu, Q. (2010). Composition, molecular structure, properties, and modification of pulse starches. Food Research International 43, 399-413.

Jagannath, J.H., Nanjappa, C., Das Gupta, D.K. y Bawa, A.S. (2003). Mechanical and barrier properties of edible starch?protein-based films. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 88, 64-71.

Jiménez-Castaño, L., López-Fandiño R., Olano A. y Villamiel M. (2005a). Study on -lactoglobulin glycosylation with dextran: Effect on solubility and heat stability. Food Chemistry 93, 689-695.

Jiménez-Castan˜o, L., Villamiel, M., Martín-Álvarez, P.J., Olano, A. y López-Fandiño, R. (2005b). Effect of the dry-heating conditions on the glycosylation of -lactoglobulin with dextran through the Maillard reaction. Food Hydrcolloids 19, 831-837.

Jovanovich, G., Zamponi, R.A., Lupano, C.E. y A˜n´on, M.C. (1992). Effect of the water content on the formation and dissociation of the amylose-lipid complex in wheat flour. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 40, 1789-1793.

Kapelko, M., Zieba, T. y Michalski, A. (2012). Effect of the production method on the properties of RS3/RS4 type resistant starch. Part 2. Effect of a degree of substitution on the selected properties of acetylated retrograded starch. Food Chemistry 135, 2035-2042.

Krochta, J.M. y Hernández-Izquierdo, V.M. (2008). Thermoplastic processing of proteins for film formation. Journal of Food Science 73, R30-R39.

Kuorwel, K.K., Cran, J.M., Sonneveld, K., Miltz, J. y Bigger, S.W. (2011). Antimicrobial activity of biodegradable polysaccharide and protein-based films containing active agents. Journal of Food Science 76, R90-R102.

Laohakunjit, N. y Noomhorm, A. (2004). Effect of plasticizers on mechanical and barrier properties of rice starch film. Starch/St¨arke 56, 348-356.

Mali, S., Grossmann, M.V.E., García, M.A., Martino, M.N. y Zaritzky, N.E. (2002). Microstructural characterization of yam starch films. Carbohydrates Polymers 50, 379-386.

Mali, S., Sakanaka, L.S., Yamashita, F. y Grossman, M.V.E. (2005). Water sorption and mechanical properties of cassava starch films and their relation to plasticizing effect. Carbohydrate Polymers 60, 283- 289.

Mine, Y. y Yang, M. (2010). Functional properties of egg components in food systems. En: Handbook of Poultry Science and Technology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New Jersey.

Mirmoghtadaie, L., Kadivar, M. y Shahedi, M. (2009). Effects of cross-linking and acetylation on oat starch properties. Food Chemistry 116, 709-713.

Nuñez-Santiago, C., García-Suárez, F.J.L., Roman- Gutierrez, A.D. y Bello-Pérez, L.A. (2010). Effect of reagent type on the acetylation of barley and maize starches. Starch/Stärke 62, 489-497.

Nuñez-Santiago, M.C., García-Suárez, F.J., Gutiérrez- Meraz, F., Sánchez-Rivera, M.M. y Bello-Pérez, L.A. (2011). Some intrinsic and extrinsic factors of acetylated starches: Morphological, physicochemical and structural characteristics. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 10, 501-512.

Oliver, C.M., Melton, L.D. y Stanley, R.A. (2006). Creating proteins with novel functionality via the Maillard reaction: A review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 46, 337-350.

Pérez-Gago, M.B. y Krochta, J.M. (2001). Denaturation time and temperature effects on solubility, tensile properties and oxygen permeability of whey protein edible films. Journal of Food Science 66, 705-710.

Pérez-Gallardo, A., Bello-Pérez, L.A., García- Almendárez, B., Montejano-Gaitán, G., Barbosa- Cánovas, G. y Regalado, C. (2012). Effect of structural characteristics of modified waxy corn starches on rheological properties, film-forming solutions, and on water vapor permeability, solubility, and opacity of films. Starch/Stärke 64, 27-36.

Planchot, V., Colona, P., Gallant, D.J. y Bouchet, B. (1995). Extensive degradation of native starch granules by alpha-amylase from Aspergillus fumigatus. Journal of Cereal Science 21, 163-17.

Prieto-Méndez, J., Trejo-Cárdenas C.L., Prieto-García, F., Méndez-Marzo, M.A., Bello-Pérez, L. A. y Román-Gutierrez, A.D. (2010). Acetilación y caracterización del almidón de cebada. Revista Latinoamericana de Recursos Naturales 6, 32-43.

Ramos, O.L., Reinas, I., Silva, S.I., Fernandes, J.C., Cerqueira, M.A., Pereira, R.N., Vicente, A. A., Pocas, M.F., Pintado, M.E. y Malcata, F.X. (2013). Effect of whey protein purity and glycerol content upon physical properties of edible films manufactured therefrom. Food Hydrocolloids 30, 110-122.

Rivas-González, M., Zamudio-Flores, P.B. y Bello-Pérez, L.A. (2009). Efecto del grado de acetilación en las características morfológicas y fisicoquímicas del almidón de plátano. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 8, 291-297.

Romero-Bastida, C.A., Zamudio-Flores, P.B. y Bello-Pérez, L.A. (2011). Antimicrobianos en películas de almidón oxidado de plátano: Efecto sobre la actividad antibacteriana, microestructura, propiedades mecanicas y de barrera. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 10, 445-453.

Sánchez-Rivera, M.M., Flores-Ramírez, I., Zamudio- Flores, P.B., González-Soto, R.A., Rodríguez-Ambríz, S.L. y Bello-Pérez, L.A. (2010). Acetylation of banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) starches using a microwave heating procedure and iodine as catalyst: Partial characterization. Starch/Starke 62, 155-164.

Shen-Li, X., Wu, J.M., Chen, Y. y Zhao, G. (2010). Antimicrobial and physical properties of sweet potato starch ?lms incorporated with potassium sorbate or chitosan. Food Hydrocolloids 24, 285-290.

Shogren, R.L. (1996). Preparation, thermal properties and extrusion of high-amylose starch acetates. Carbohydrate Polymers 29, 57-62.

Shogren, R.L. (2003). Rapid preparation of starch esters by high temperature/pressure reaction. Carbohydrate Polymers 52, 319-326.

Shonaike, G.O. y Simon, G.P. (1999). Polymer blends and alloys. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.

Srinivasa, P.C., Ramesh, M.N., Kumar, K.R. y Tharanathan, R.N. (2004). Properties of chitosan films prepared under dierent drying conditions. Journal of Food Engineering 63, 79-85.

Walpole, R.E., Myers, R.H. y Myers, S.L. (1999). Probabilidad y Estad´ıstica para Ingenieros. 6a. Ed. Prentice-Hall Hispanoamericana, México.

Wang, Y., Ju, B. y Zhang, S. (2012). Viscosity properties of acetylated carboxymethyl starch. Carbohydrate Polymers 90, 696-702.

Wurzburg, O.B. (1964). Acetylation. En: Methods in carbohydrate chemistry Vol. IV. (R.L. Whistler, R.J. Smith, J.N. BeMiller y M.L. Wolfrom, eds.), Academic Press, New York, Pp. 312-320.

Xu, Y.X., Dzenis, Y. y Hanna, M.A. (2005b). Water solubility, thermal characteristics and biodegradability of extruded starch acetate foams. Industrial Crops and Products 21, 361-368.

Xu, Y.X., Kim, K.M., Hanna, M.A. y Nag, D. (2005a). Chitosan-starch composite film: preparation and characterization. Industrial Crops and Products 21, 185-192.

Yoo, S. y Krochta J.M. (2011). Whey proteinpolysaccharide blended edible film formation and barrier, tensile, thermal and transparency properties. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 91, 2628-2636.

Yoo, S. y Krochta, J.M. (2012). Starch-methylcellulosewhey protein film properties. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 47, 255-261.

Zamudio-Flores, P.B., Bautista-Baños, S., Salgado- Delgado, R. y Bello-Pérez, L.A. (2009). Effect of oxidation level on the dual modification of banana starch: The mechanical and barrier properties of its films. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 112, 822- 829.

Zamudio-Flores, P.B., Vargas-Torres A., Gutiérrez-Meraz F. y Bello-Pérez L.A. (2010b). Physicochemical characterization of dually-modified banana starch. Agrociencia 44, 283-295.

Zamudio-Flores, P.B., Vargas-Torres, A., Salgado- Delgado, R. y Bello-Pérez, L.A. (2010a). Influence of the oxidation and acetylation of banana starch on the mechanical and water barrier properties of modified starch and modified starch/chitosan blend films. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 115, 991-998.

Zhou, M., Robards, K., Glennie-Holmes, M. y Helliwell, S. (1998). Structure and pasting properties of oat starch. Cereal Chemistry 75, 273-281.

Zobel, H.F. (1988). Molecules to granules: A comprehensive starch review. Starch/St¨arke 40, 44-50.
How to Cite
Zamudio-Flores, P., & Bello-Pérez, L. (2020). ELABORATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GLYCOPROTEIN FILMS OBTAINED WITH THE MAILLARD’S REACTION USING ACETYLATED STARCH AND WHEY PROTEIN ISOLATED. Revista Mexicana De Ingeniería Química, 12(3), 401-413. Retrieved from http://rmiq.org/ojs311/index.php/rmiq/article/view/1498

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>