Increase in the mortality of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae due to the application of an electric field during conidiation

Keywords: Electric field, Solid-state culture, Entomopathogen fungus, Mortality

Abstract

The effects of an electric field on conidia production by Metarhizium anisopliae in solid state culture were determined. A 450-mL electrochemical cell (EC) with titanium ruthenium-oxide coated electrodes and packed with a mixture of rice:corn stubble, was inoculated with 1x106 conidia (g of initial dry support)-1 and incubated for 8 days (30ºC). Four days after starting the culture, a current density of 0.09 mA/cm2 was applied for 24 h. The moisture kept constant (75%), with and without electric field. With electric field, conidiation (4.9x108 ± 3.7x107 conidia (g of initial dry support)-1) did not show significant differences, but their viability and germination (67 and 45%, respectively) were lower than in the non-perturbated conidia. Total mortality of Tenebrio molitor larvae provoked by conidia produced in presence of the electric field was 40% higher compared to that provoked by the conidia control. The study showed that the application of electric field improving the conidial infectivity. This new approach is susceptible to be optimized to other fungi for biological control with the purpose of improving field performance and further investigations on the modification of cellular mechanisms by the electric field stimuli.

Author Biography

M. Gutiérrez-Rojas

Mariano Gutiérrez-Rojas, PhD He was born in Mexico City (1951). Chemical Engineer (1973); Bioengineer (1983) and Chemical Engineering Doctor (1995). Since 1983 is a Full Research Professor at the Autonomous Metropolitan University (México City, MEXICO). Formerly, was dealing with solid substrates bioprocess including filamentous fungi cultures on inert supports. His work has been lately oriented to the Environmental Biotechnology and Bioengineering field, in general, and to the contaminated soil phytoremediation and bioremediation in particular. Themass and heat transfer in biochemical and electrochemical reactors is the matter of his expertise.

References

Acar, Y.B. and Alshawabkeh A.N. (1993). Principles of electrokinetic remediation. Environmental Science & Technology 27, 2638-2647. doi.org/10.1021/es00049a002

Aguirre, J., Ríos-Momberg, M., Hewitt, D. and Hansberg, W. (2005). Reactive oxygen species and development in microbial eukaryotes. Trends in Microbiology 13, 111-118. doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2005.01.007

Angel-Cuapio, A., Figueroa-Montero, A., Favela-Torres, E., Viniegra-González, G., Perraud-Gaime, I. and Loera, O. (2015). Critical values of porosity in rice cultures of Isaria fumosorosea by adding water hyacinth: Effect on conidial yields and quality. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 177, 446-457. doi:10.1007/s12010-015-1754-4

Araújo, J.P. and Hughes, D.P. (2016). Chapter one - diversity of entomopathogenic fungi: which groups conquered the insect body?. Advances in genetics Vol. 94, pp. 1-39. Academic Press. doi.org/10.1016/bs.adgen.2016.01.001

Chandra Teja, K.N.P. and Rahman, S.J. (2017) Effect of media pH on the growth of entomopathogenic fungi isolated from different rhizosphere soils. International Journal of Bioassays 6.03, 5325-5327. doi:10.21746/ijbio.2017.03.009

Holder, D.J., Kirkland, B.H., Lewis, M.W. and Keyhani, N.O. (2007). Surface characteristics of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria (Cordyceps) bassiana. Microbiology 153, 3448-3457. doi:10.1099/mic.0.2007/008524-0

Lopez-Perez, M., Rodriguez-Gomez, D. and Loera, O. (2015). Production of conidia of Beauveria bassiana in solid-state culture: current status and future perspectives. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology 35, 334-341. doi:10.3109/07388551.2013.857293

McGuire, A.V. and Northfield, T.D. (2020). Tropical occurrence and agricultural importance of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 4, 6. doi:10.3389/fsufs.2020.00006

Miranda-Hernandez, F., Saucedo-Castañeda, G., Alatorre-Rosas, R. and Loera, O. (2014). Oxygen-rich culture conditions enhance the conidial infectivity and the quality of two strains of Isaria fumosorosea for potentially improved biocontrol processes. Pest Management Science 70, 661-666. doi.org/10.1002/ps.3605

Ndiath, M.O. (2019). Insecticides and insecticide resistance. In: Ariey F., Gay F., Ménard R. (eds) Malaria control and elimination. Methods in Molecular Biology vol 2013. Humana, New York, NY. doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9550-9

Nezammahalleh, H., Ghanati, F., Adams, T.A., Nosrati, M. and Shojaosadati, S.A. (2016). Effect of moderate static electric field on the growth and metabolism of Chlorella vulgari, Bioresource Technology 218, 700-711. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2016.07.018

Oliveira, A.S., Braga, G.U.L. and Rangel, D.E.N. (2018). Metarhizium robertsii illuminated during mycelial growth produces conidia with increased germination speed and virulence. Fungal Biology 122, 555-562. doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2017.12.009

Pamukcu, S. and Wittle, J.K. (1993). Electrokinetically enhanced in situ soil decontamination, in Remediation of hazardous waste Contaminated Soils, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York. Pp 245-294. doi:10.1201/9780203740880-13

Rangel, D.E., Alston, D.G. and Roberts, D.W. (2008). Effects of physical and nutritional stress conditions during mycelial growth on conidial germination speed, adhesion to host cuticle, and virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae, an entomopathogenic fungus. Mycological Research 112, 1355-1361. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2008.04.011

Rodríguez-Gómez, D., Loera, O., Saucedo-Castañeda, G. and Viniegra-González, G. (2009). Substrate influence on physiology and virulence of Beauveria bassiana acting on larvae and adults of Tenebrio molitor. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 25, 513-518. doi:10.1007/s11274-008-9917-x

Sáenz-Mendoza, A.I., Zamudio-Flores, P.B., Palomino-Artalejo, G.A., Tirado-Gallegos, J.M., García-Cano, V.G., Ornelas-Paz, J.J., Rios-Velasco, C., Acosta-Muñiz, C.H., Vargas-Torres, A., Salgado-Delgado, R. and Aparicio-Saguilán, A. (2019). Physicochemical, morphological and structural characterization of the chitin and chitosan of Tenebrio molitor and Galleria mellonella insects. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 18, 39-56. doi.org/10.24275/uam/izt/dcbi/revmexingquim/2019v18n1/Saenz

Safavi, S.A., Shah, FA., Pakdel, A.K., Rasoulian, G.R., Bandani, A.R. and Butt, T.M. (2007) Effect of nutrition on growth and virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. FEMS Microbiology Letters 270, 116-123. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2007.00666.x

San Aw, M.A.K. and Hue, S.M. (2017). Mode of infection of Metarhizium spp. fungus and their potential as biological control agents. Journal of Fungi 3, 30. doi:10.3390/jof3020030

Simas-Dias, D., Acevedo-Jaramillo, L.Y., Vasconcelos, U. and Pereira, N. (2018). Characterization of β-Glucosidases produced by Aspergillus niger ATCC 1004 in submerged fermentation from sugarcane bagasse. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 17, 365-377. doi:10.24275/uam/izt/dcbi/revmexingquim/2018v17n1/Simas

Ting-Ting, S. and Ming-Guang, F. (2011). In vivo passages of heterologous Beauveria bassiana isolates improve conidial surface properties and pathogenicity to Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 106, 211-216. doi: 10.1016/j.jip.2010.09.022

Tlecuitl-Beristain, S., Viniegra-González, G., Díaz-Godínez, G. and Loera-Corral, O. (2010). Medium selection and effect on higher oxygen concentration pulses on Metarhizium anisopliae var. lepidiotum conidial production and quality. Mycopathologia 169, 387-394. doi:10.1007/s11046-009-9268-7

Trasatti, S. (2000). Electrocatalysis: understanding the success of DSA. Electrochimica Acta 45, 2377-2385. doi.org/10.1016/S0013-4686(00)00338-8

Velasco-Alvarez, N., González, I., Damian-Matsumura, P. and Gutiérrez-Rojas, M. (2011). Enhanced hexadecane degradation and low biomass production by Aspergillus niger exposed to an electric current in a model system. Bioresource Technology 102, 1509-1515. doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.07.111

Velasco-Alvarez, N., Gutiérrez-Rojas, M. and Gonzáles, I. (2017). Alterations in Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) ATCC 9642 membranes associated to metabolism modifications during application of low-intensity electric current. Bioelectrochemistry 118, 1-7. doi:10.1016/j.bioelechem.2017.06.008

Published
2020-07-20
How to Cite
Rodriguez-Gomez, D., Garate-Velez, L., Morales-Piña, A., Gutiérrez-Rojas, M., & Velasco-Alvarez, N. (2020). Increase in the mortality of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae due to the application of an electric field during conidiation. Revista Mexicana De Ingeniería Química, 19(Sup. 1), 123-133. https://doi.org/10.24275/rmiq/Bio1601
Section
Biotechnology