Biodegradation of cocoa shell by phytopatogenic fungi for Pleurotus ostreatus production

  • J.D. Valenzuela-Cobos
  • R. Lazo-Sulca
  • D. Noriega-Verdugo
  • M. Garcés
  • A. Grijalva-Endara
Keywords: Cocoa shell, degradation, Pleurotus ostreatus.

Abstract

Three treatments based on spores Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (B1), spores Rhizopus stolonifer (B2) and a mixture of spores Colletotrichum gloeosporioides + Rhizopus stolonifer (B3) to increase the degradation of the cocoa shell. Using the treatment (B1) was obtained the highest degradation of the cocoa shell being of 57.18%, and the leachates production was of 84 mL with pH of 4.10. Pleurotus ostreatus strain (UE01) was cultivated using a mixture of wheat straw with cocoa shell degraded (without or with the 3 treatments), and the productivity and chemical composition of the mushrooms were determined. Pleurotus ostreatus strain (UE01) cultivated on the mixture of wheat straw with cocoa shell degraded with the treatment (B2) showed the highest biological efficiency (124.15 %) and the highest production rate (2.71 %), while the fruit bodies obtained in this mixture exhibited the highest protein content being of 27.84%, and lowest carbohydrate content being of 63.83%. The solutions with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Rhizopus stolonifer can be used for the farmers to improve the degradation of cocoa shell and increase the production of Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooms with highest protein content.

References

Alananbeh, K.M., Bouqellah, N.A. and Al KaffCultivation, N.S. (2014).Cultivation of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on date-palm leaves mixed with other agro-wastes in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 21, 616-625.
AOAC. (1997). Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 16th ed. Whashington U.S.A.
Chafla, A.L., Rodríguez, Z., Boucourt, R. and Torres, V. (2016). Bromatological characterization of cocoa shell (Theobroma cacao), from seven cantons of the Amazonia, Ecuador. Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science 50, 245-252.
Chavez, E., He, Z.L., Stoffella, P.J., Mylavarapu, R.S., Li, Y.C., Moyano, B. and Baligar, V.C. (2015). Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador. Science of the Total Environment 533, 205–214.
Coello-Loor, C.D., Avellaneda-Cevallos, J.H., Barrera-Álvarez, A.E., Peña-Galeas, M.M., Yépez Macías, P.F. and Racines-Macías, E.R. (2017). Evaluación del crecimiento y producción de biomasa de dos cepas del género Pleurotus spp., cultivadas en un medio agar con diferentes sustratos. Ciencia y Tecnología 10, 33-39.
Eger, G., Eden, G. and Wissig, E. (1976). Pleurotus ostreatus-breeding potential of a new cultivated mushroom. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 47, 155-163.
Fels, L., Zamama, M., Asli, A. and Hafidi, M. (2014). Assessment of biotransformation of organic matter during co-composting of sewage sludge-lignocellulosic waste by chemical, FTIR analyses, and phytotoxicity tests. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 87, 128-137.
Fox, M.H., Noike, T. and Ohki, T. (2003). Alkaline subcritical-water treatment and alkaline heat treatment for the increase in biodegradability of newsprint waste. Water Science and Technology 48, 77-84.
Iossi, M., Valenzuela Cobos, J.D., Gea, F.J., Zied, D. (2018) Pleurotus spp. cultivation on Brachiaria sp. straw treatment with alkaline water. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 49, 64-67.
Lau, O. (1982). Methods of chemical analysis of mushrooms. In: Tropical Mushrooms. Biological Nature and Cultivation Methods (S.T. Chang & T.H. Quimio, eds.), Pp 87-116. The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong.
Loor, R., Risterucci, A., Courtois, B., Fouet, O., Jeanneau, M., Rosenquist, E., Amores, F., Vasco, A., Medina, M. and Lanaud, C. (2009). Tracing the native ancestors of the modern Theobroma cacao L. population in Ecuador. Tree Genetics & Genome 5, 421–433.
Lowor, S.T. and Ofori, E. (2018). Evaluation of Cashew Pulp and Shell, Kola, Cocoa and Coffee Husk as Substrates for the Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus. Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology 19, 1-10.
Mandeel, Q.A., Al-Laith, A.A. and Mohamed, S.A. (2005). Cultivation of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus spp.) on various lignocellulosic wastes. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 4, 601-607.
Manzano, P., Hernández, J., Quijano-Avilés, M., Barragán, A., Chóez-Guaranda, I., Viteri, R. and Valle, O. (2017). Polyphenols extracted from Theobroma cacao waste and its utility as antioxidant. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 29, 45–50.
Manzi, P., Marconi, S., Aguzzi, A. and Pizzoferrato, L. (2004). Commercial mushrooms: Nutritional quality and effect of cooking. Food Chemistry 84, 201-206.
Mena-Nevarez, G., Valencia-Del Toro, G., Piña-Guzmán, A.B., Villanueva-Arce, R., Durán-Páramo, E. and Robles-Martínez, F. (2012). Degradation capacity of fungi (Colletotrichum sp., Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp.) on mangoes and oranges. African Journal of Agricultural Research 7, 4564-4574.
Murillo, I. (2008). Evaluación de 2 Dietas Experimentales con Diferentes Niveles de Cascarilla de Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) en las Fases de Crecimiento y Acabado de Cuyes (Cavia porcellus L.) de Raza Andina. B.Sc. Dissertation, Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral, Guayaquil.
Ouatmane, A., Provenzano, M.R., Hafidi, M. and Sensi, N. (2000). Compost maturity assessment using calorimetry, spectroscopy and chemical analysis. Compost Science & Utilization 8, 124-134.
Pineda, J. A., Soto, C. P., Santiago, N. F., Pónce, C. A. and Reyes, G. (2015). Selección de cepas nativas ecuatorianas del hongo ostra (Pleurotus ostreatus) con fines industriales. Bionatura 1, 29–32.
Royse, D.J. (1989). Factors influencing the production rate of shiitake. Mushroom Journal for the Tropics 9, 27-38.
Royse, D.J. and Sánchez, J.E. (2008). Supplementation of 2nd break mushroom compost with isoleucine, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, Fermenten and SoyPlus. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 24, 2011-2017.
Salmones, D., Gaitán-Hernández, R., Pérez, R. and Guzmán, G. (1997). Estudios sobre el género Pleurotus VIII. Interacción entre crecimiento micelial y productividad. Revista Iberoamericana de Micología 14, 173-176.
Valencia del Toro, G., Ramírez-Ortiz, M.E., Flores-Ramírez, G., Costa-Manzano, M. R., Robles-Martínez, F., Garín Aguilar, M.E. and Leal-Lara, H. (2018). Effect of Yucca schidigera bagasse as substrate for Oyster mushroom on cultivation parameters and fruit body quality. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 17, 835-846.
Valenzuela-Cobos, J.D., Durán Páramo, E., Villanueva Arce, R., Sánchez Hernández, A., Garín Aguilar, M.E., Leal Lara, H. and Valencia del Toro, G. (2017). Production of hybrid strains among Pleutorus and Lentinula and evaluation of their mycelial growth kinetics on malt extract agar and wheat grain using the Gompertz and Hill models. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 29, 927-935.
Valenzuela-Cobos, J.D., Vásquez-Véliz, G., Zied, D.C., Franco-Hernández, O.M., Sánchez Hernández, A., Garín Aguilar, M.E., Leal Lara, H. and Valencia del Toro, G. (2019a). Bioconversion of agricultural wastes using parental, hybrid and reconstituted strains of Pleurotus and Lentinula. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 18, 647-657.
Valenzuela-Cobos, J.D., Rodríguez-Grimón, R.O., Zied, D.C., Grijalva-Endara, A., Garcés- Moncayo, M.F., Garín-Aguilar, M.E., Sánchez-Hernandez, A. and Valencia del Toro, G. (2019b) Chemical composition and biological properties of Pleurotus spp. cultivated on different concentrations of peat moss and wheat straw. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 31, 830-836.
Valenzuela-Cobos, J.D., Rodríguez-Grimón, R.O., Vargas-Farías, C., Grijalva-Endara, A. and Mercader-Camejo, O.A. (2020a). Biodegradation of plantain rachis using phytopathogenic fungi for composting. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 19, 533-541.
Valenzuela-Cobos, J.D., Grijalva-Endara, A., Marcillo-Vallejo, R. and Garcés-Moncayo, M.F. (2020b) Production and characterization of reconstituted strains of Pleurotus spp. cultivated on different agricultural wastes. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química. 19, 1493-1504.
Vriesmann, L. C., Teofilo, R. F. and de Oliveira Petkowicz, C. L. (2012). Extraction and characterization of pectin from cacao pod husks (Theobroma cacao L.) with citric acid. LWT-Food Science and Technology 49, 108–116.
Published
2020-11-08
How to Cite
Valenzuela-Cobos, J., Lazo-Sulca, R., Noriega-Verdugo, D., Garcés, M., & Grijalva-Endara, A. (2020). Biodegradation of cocoa shell by phytopatogenic fungi for Pleurotus ostreatus production. Revista Mexicana De Ingeniería Química, 20(1), 381-388. https://doi.org/10.24275/rmiq/Bio1938
Section
Biotechnology

Most read articles by the same author(s)