• L.C. Montoya-Ballesteros Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo A.C. (CIAD, A.C).
  • A. González-León
  • Y.J. Martínez-Nú˜nez Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo A.C. (CIAD, A.C).
  • M.R. Robles-Burgue˜no Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo A.C. (CIAD, A.C).
  • M.A. García-Alvarado Unidad de Investigación y Desarrollo en Alimentos (UNIDA)-ITV
  • G.C. Rodríguez-Jimenes Unidad de Investigación y Desarrollo en Alimentos (UNIDA)-ITV
Keywords: chiltepin, capsaicin, capsanthin, ascorbic acid, open sun drying, hot air drying


Chiltepin is recognized for its pungency and deep red color. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of open sun drying and hot air drying methods, as well as pretreatments on capsaicin, capsanthin, and ascorbic acid content in chiltepin. Chiltepin was dried using open sun and hot air drying. Raw chiltepin showed capsaicin (C) and capsanthin (CAPS) content of 5,560 µg/g dry weight (dw) and 58.7 µg/g dw, respectively; ascorbic acid (AA) concentration (140 µg/g dw) was lower to that reported in other peppers. Open sun drying affected the concentrations of CAPS (12.09 µg/g dw) and AA (3.5 µg/g dw), but not C (5,500 µg/g dw). In hot air drying, the lowest temperature (35 °C) favored retention of bioactive compounds of 90%, 52%, and 35% (C, CAPS, and AA, respectively). These results suggest that C is the most stable compound. Thus, hot air drying can be recommended for a higher retain of CAPS and AA compounds


ASTA. (1997). Offcial analytical methods of the ASTA: method 21.3, pungency of Capsicum and their oleoresins. 5th ed., New Jersey.

AOAC. (2013). Association of Offcial Agricultural Chemists. Offcial Method 934.06 Moisture in Dried Fruits. Available at: 2914.html. Accessed at: May 26, 2017.

Bernardo, A., Mart´ınez, S., A´ lvarez, M., Ferna´ndez, A., and L´opez, M. (2008). The composition of two Spanish pepper varieties (Fresno de la Vega and Benavente-los Valles) in different ripening stages. Journal of Food Quality 31, 701-716.

Carvajal, M., Gim´enez, J.L., Riquelme, F., and Alcaraz, C.F. (1998). Antioxidant content and colour level in dierent varieties of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) affected by plant-leaf Ti4 + spray and processing. Acta Alimentaria 27, 365-375.

Cisneros-Pineda O., L. W. Torres-Tapia, L. C. Guti´errez-Pacheco, F. Contreras-Mart´ın, T. Gonz´alez-Estrada, and S. R. Peraza- S´anchez. (2007). Capsaicinoids quantification in chili peppers cultivated in the state of Yucat´an, M´exico. Food Chemistry 104, 1755-1760.

Contreras-Padilla, M., and Yahia, E.M. (1998). Changes in capsaicinoids during development, maturation, and senescence of chili peppers and relation with peroxidase activity. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 46, 2075-2079.

Daood, H.G., Kapit´any, J., Biacs, P., and Albrecht, K. (2006). Drying temperature, endogenous antioxidants and capsaicinoids affect carotenoid stability in paprika (red pepper spice). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 86, 2450-2457.

Daood, H.G., Palot´as, G., Palot´as, G., Somogyi, Z., P´ek, Z., and Helyes, L. (2014). Carotenoid and antioxidant content of ground paprika from indoor-cultivated traditional varieties and new hybrids of spice red peppers. Food Research International 65(Part B), 231-237.

De Tullio, M.C., Ciraci, S., Liso, R., and Arrigoni, O. (2007). Ascorbic acid oxidase is dynamically regulated by light and oxygen. A tool for oxygen management in plants? Journal of Plant Physiology 164, 39-46.

Dom´ınguez-Ni˜no, A., Buend´ıa-Gonz´alez, A.N., Cant´u-Lozano, D., Andrade-Gonz´alez, I., and Luna-Solano G. (2016). Efecto del secado por lecho fluidizado sobre las propiedades fisicoqu´ımicas y microbiol´ogicas de queso fresco mexicano. Revista Mexicana de Ingenier´ıa Qu´ımica 15, 869-881

Doner, L.W., and Hicks, K.B. (1981). High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of ascorbic acid, erythorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, dehydroerythorbic acid, diketogulonic acid, and diketogluconic acid. Analytical Biochemistry 115, 225-230.

Estrada, B., and Bernal, M.A. (2000). Fruit development in Capsicum annuum: changes in capsaicin, lignin, free phenolics, and peroxidase patterns. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48, 6234-6239.

FAO. Comisi´on del Codex Alimentarius. Programa conjunto FAO/OMS sobre normas alimentarias comit´e del codex sobre frutas y hortalizas frescas. (2010). Available at: ff 14 10s.pdf. Accessed at: May 10, 2016.

Fellows, P. (2000). Food Processing Technology Principles and Practice. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. Giuffrida, D., Dugo, P., Torre, G., Bignardi, C., Cavazza, A., Corradini, C., and Dugo, G. (2013). Characterization of 12 Capsicum varieties by evaluation of their carotenoid profile and pungency determination. Food Chemistry 140, 794-802.

Govindarajan, V., and Salzer, U. (2009). Capsicum - production, technology, chemistry, and quality - part II: processed products, standards, world production and trade. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 23, 207-288.

Gregory, F. (2008). Vitamins. In Damodaran, S., Parkin, K., and Fennema O. (Eds.). Fennema’s Food Chemistry (4th ed.). Pp. 441-515, CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; Boca Raton, FL. Gupta, P., Ahmed, J., Shivhare, U.S. and Raghavan, G.S.V. (2002). Drying characteristics of red chili. Drying Technology 20, 1975-1987.

Howard, L.R., Talcott, S.T., Brenes, C.H., and Villalon, B. (2000). Changes in Phytochemical and antioxidant activity of selected pepper cultivars (Capsicum species) as influenced by maturity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48, 1713-1720.

Jar´en-Gal´an, M., and M´ınguez-Mosquera, M.I. (1997). -Carotene and capsanthin co-oxidation by lipoxygenase, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the reaction. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 45, 4814-4820.

Kirschbaum-Titze, P., Hiepler, C., Mueller-Seitz, E., and Petz, M. (2002). Pungency in paprika (Capsicum annuum): 1. Decrease of capsaicinoid content following cellular disruption. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50, 1260-1263.

Kurozawa, L.E., Terng, I., Hubinger, M.D., and Park, K.J. (2014). Ascorbic acid degradation of papaya during drying: eect of process conditions and glass transition phenomenon. Journal of Food Engineering 123, 157-164.

Labuza, T., Tannenbaun, S., and Karel, M. (1970). Water content and stability of low moisture and intermediate moisture foods. Food Technology 24, 543-544.

Lee, S.H., and Labuza, T.P. (1975). Destruction of ascorbic acid as a function of water activity. Journal of Food Science 40, 370-373.

M´ınguez-Mosquera, M.M., Jar´en-Gal´an, M., and Garrido-Fern´andez, J. (1994). Influence of the industrial drying processes of pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum cv. Bola) for paprika on the carotenoid content. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 42, 1190-1193.

Montoya-Ballesteros, G.B., Ayala-Ch´avez, G.M., Mart´ınez-N´u˜nez, Y.Y., and Robles-Ozuna, L.E. (2010). Capsaicinoides y color en chiltep´ın (Capsicum annuum var. Aviculare): efecto del proceso sobre salsas y encurtidos. Revista Mexicana de Ingenier´ıa Qu´ımica 9, 197-207.

Orak, H., and Demirsi, M. (2005). Effect of different blanching methods and period of frozen storage on enzyme activities and some quality criterias of hot and sweet red peppers (Capsicum annuum L.). Pak. Journal of Biological Science 8, 641-648.

P´erez G´alvez, A., and Garrido Fern´andez, J. (1997). Termodegradaci´on de carotenoides en el piment´on. Grasas y Aceites 48, 290-296.

P´erez-L´opez, J., L´opez-Nicol´as, J.M., N´u˜nez- Delicado, E., Del Amor, F. and Carbonell- Barrachina, A. (2007). Eects of agricultural practices on color, carotenoids composition, and minerals contents of sweet peppers, cv. almuden. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55, 8158-8164.

Pugliese, A., O’Callaghan, Y., Tundis, R., Galvin, K., Menichini, F., O’Brien, N., and Loizzo, M.R. (2014). In vitro assessment of the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from sun-dried chili peppers. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 69, 8-17.

Raju, P.S., Chauhan, O.P., and Brawa, A.S. (2010). Chili flavor. In HUI Y. (Ed.). Handbook of Fruit and Vegetable Flavors. Hoboken; New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Rodriguez-Amaya, D.B. (2010). Quantitative analysis, in vitro assessment of bioavailability and antioxidant activity of food carotenoidsa review. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 23, 726-740.

SAGARPA. (2011). Mantiene M´exico liderazgo en la producci´on mundial de chile. Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganader´ıa, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentaci´on, M´exico. Available at: yucatan/Boletines/Paginas/201208B058.aspx& source=gmail&ust=1463159607067000&usg= AFQjCNE2BaGsr3k3G2Zl2zLh5-aAWBMxcA. Accessed at: May 10, 2016.

Santos, P., and Silva, M.A. (2008). Kinetics of Lascorbic acid degradation in pineapple drying under ethanolic atmosphere. Drying Technology 27, 947-954.

Schwarts, J.S., and Von Elbe, G.M. (2008). Colorants. In: Damodaran, (S., Parkin, K., and Fennema, O.R. eds.), Pp. 571-632. Fennema’s Food Chemistry (4th ed.), CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; Boca Raton, FL. Schweiggert, U., Schieber, A., and Carle, R. (2006). Eects of blanching and storage on capsaicinoid stability and peroxidase activity of hot chili peppers (Capsicum frutescens L.). Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 7, 217-224.

Topuz, A., Dincer, C., O¨ zdemir, K.S., Feng, H., and Kushad, M. (2011). Influence of dierent drying methods on carotenoids and capsaicinoids of paprika (Cv., Jalapeno). Food Chemistry 129, 860-865.

Topuz, A., and O¨ zdemir, F. (2004). Influences of gamma irradiation and storage on the capsaicinoids of sun-dried and dehydrated paprika. Food Chemistry 86, 509-515.

Vega-G´alvez, A., Di Scala, K., Rodr´ıguez, K., Lemus-Mondaca, R., Miranda, M., L´opez, J., and P´erez-Won, M. (2009). Eect of air-drying temperature on physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacity, colour and total phenolic content of red pepper (Capsicum annuum, L. var. Hungarian). Food Chemistry 117, 647-653.

Vega-G´alvez, A., Lemus, M.R., Bilbao, S.C., Yagnman, F., and ROJAS, A. (2007). Mass transfer kinetics during convective drying of red pepper var. Hungarian (Capsicum annuum). Mathematical modeling and evaluation of kinetic parameters. Journal of Food Process Engineering 31, 120-137.

Wahyuni, Y., Ballester, A.R., Sudarmonowati, E., Bino, R.J., and Bovy, A.G. (2013). Secondary metabolites of Capsicum species and their importance in the human diet. Journal of Natural Products 76, 783-793.
How to Cite
Montoya-Ballesteros, L., González-León, A., Martínez-Nú˜nezY., Robles-Burgue˜noM., García-Alvarado, M., & Rodríguez-Jimenes, G. (2019). IMPACT OF OPEN SUN DRYING AND HOT AIR DRYING ON CAPSAICIN, CAPSANTHIN, AND ASCORBIC ACID CONTENT IN CHILTEPIN (Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum). Revista Mexicana De Ingeniería Química, 16(3), 813-825. Retrieved from